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NBA history, led his unit to win the most screenings coach, the column Nepal. Wickens once said: "pay attention to physical training, players can adapt to competitive basketball games, but also more likely to succeed." Now , we have a clear understanding of today's basketball is a fast and furiously Pinqiang confrontation, but also in particular under the conditions of the confrontation. Competition, Pinqiang is severe, technology should be full and tactics to be refined, style of play should be changed, taller, physically stronger, playgrounds and all actions must be accurate. Has always advocated the "fast, high, accurate and relentless." All these indicate that the contemporary basketball players highlighted on the form, speed, strength, endurance and confrontation requirement that the physical fitness of athletes have become increasingly demanding.

All known as "Michael" Jordan, "the destruction of those rebounds," O'Neal and other NBA players are all a result of scientific physical training and have comprehensive technical and tactical ability to become a leader on the pitch. Originally in the domestic basketball court, inside there is no absolute advantage "little giant" Yao Ming entered the NBA, after a scientific system of physical training, to overcome physical problems. Basketball in the world now has a place. These are illustrated, for basketball players the importance of physical fitness.

Therefore, the objective analysis of China's basketball player is currently a problem in physical training will help increase the competitive level of basketball in China.

1. Basketball players the importance of physical training is

1.1 physical basketball skills and tactics are the basis of a basketball to shoot the ball for the purpose of fast-changing pace of attack and defense, strength of sexual, physical confrontation, skills classes项目. Abundant physical strength is a high-intensity, high basketball game against the precondition. It is the day joint exercises related to the athletes to play, and the team's tactical ability to properly play the key. There is no highly developed physical as the support, it is impossible to play in the fierce competition superb athletic skills and effective tactics of doing so. Which by the speed, strength, endurance, agility, flexibility quality form of physical sports such as level of basketball skills and tactics of the most powerful foundation.

1.2 physical athletes bear the heavy load, high-intensity training and competition are the basic basketball skills, compete against non-cyclical type of confrontation project. Both short sprint, explosive jumping, throwing, another long period of confrontation, with strength, high density, long duration and the characteristics of violent confrontation. Statistics show that a basketball game, it normally takes 80 minutes or so, athletes He walked about 10KM, quickly ran a distance of about 3KM or so, which is about fast sprint running 1.5-2.5KM, 50% above average pulse at 180 beats / min or more. Exercise load is quite big. Basketball practice require that every basketball player to endure a scientific, high-intensity physical training. Training, through the ever-increasing load of stimulation, so that body to produce adaptive changes in the ability of various organ systems, improve fitness levels so that players can be improved. Only in this way can meet the high level of competition demands.

Fitness level is a team technical style, tactical style, mental outlook, the material basis for tactical coordination. Only with a higher fitness level, athletes can run faster, jump higher, move more responsive to their individual characteristics in the race and team advantage in the fierce competition in order to take the initiative to create fighter to win victory.

2. Basketball sports physical training status and existing problems

2.1 physical training professionals from the sport of basketball in the basketball to the characteristics of the current physical fitness training can also be used often see coaches track and field training and the "barbell command" training methods to basketball players to serve as high-intensity physical training. As the principles in determining the training and selection of training content, there is no clear point to affect the competition results and athlete ability determinants of specific skills - project characteristics, physical training, with little effect. This is mainly because the concept is unclear, confusing physical training and physical training, the problem of definition. The lack of distinction between the practical care.

Physical training is largely biased in favor of the quality of individual sports, but it is a kind of physical training in order to highlight 人体各器官 and functional overload the system to adapt to the training, which aims to produce physical and psychological adjustment, and tap the potential of physical fitness and improve their overall athletic ability and psychological training, physical training fully reflects the more comprehensive, more specific, demanding a comprehensive character demanded.

2.2 power problems in practice the power quality is the foundation for building physical basketball player, but also technical and tactical training prerequisite. Increasingly competitive basketball to the basketball player made the power quality of the higher demand, the importance of strength training is increasingly apparent. Therefore, scientific, systematic, continuous and effective training method to use for strength training is particularly important.

Basketball players is to require that the overall strength athletes should have a highly developed, comprehensive strength of the guarantee of quality. Especially for upper and lower limbs, waist, and ankle joints, knees, wrists, fingers should be specialized practice. Aimed at developing a comprehensive strength training part of the body movements of the muscle strength to ensure that the speed of motion effects and effectiveness. However, many coaches do not fully understand the game of basketball players is the upper and lower limbs and trunk, all parts have high strength requirements of sport. Training, tend to appear more emphasis on lower extremity strength, upper body strength and neglect; focus only on the strength of large muscle groups to ignore the power of the small muscles; more emphasis on the strength of abdominal muscles and neglect the back muscles strength; to focus only on the strength of the various sports links, the neglect of sports injury prevention training for health-care chain. Usually caused by the effect of strength training is not satisfactory, there sports injuries and other issues.

Strength training is also widespread neglect of basketball specific movements of the muscles work characteristics on the strength of a clear understanding of the composition and classification, training, a lack of scientific and other issues.

For example, commonly used in squat training exercises, it is static. Ankle basically does not participate in sports, while the completion of the work of supporting the buffer capacity of muscle contraction of the concession has not been the slightest exercise (subordination contraction capacity is the basketball court, the squat-bit dynamic movements and emergency stop motion effect to start a key factor), training is only is the capacity of quadriceps contraction. Participation in post-secondary to the importance of exercise muscles, stocks - after the muscles and tibialis anterior muscle groups has not been tempered. Results half done, great athletes, physical exertion, but the training effect was not obvious [3]. This phenomenon is our future training must improve.

After careful study and scientific proof, in the strength exercises, the snatch is to develop an effective means of explosive basketball player, hair force the order, strength properties, action structures are superior to squatting exercises.

With Chinese characteristics and the men's basketball team's performance at the Athens Olympics, some experts pointed out that how to improve the athlete's physical confrontation, and how to better development of small muscle groups strength is my basketball one of the problems be solved.

Therefore, we should combine strength training on the characteristics of the project, accurate understanding and application of exercise physiology-related knowledge to solve problems in training, to achieve the strength exercises truly meet the requirements of the purpose of competition.

2.3 speed training should pay attention to the problem

speed is a big basketball capital, is the soul of basketball is a physical level of direct response to the competition, the premise and condition for victory, physical training should be for speed service. However, the speed of the basketball court included should not be just like the sprinters do ahead. Basketball players on the pitch need to move quickly and accurately at the same time, there should be a fast change to the sliding, as well as the ability to retreat. Offense and defense conversion, particularly in the crucial moment, the speed significantly more important. Coaches should be clear, as the speed of classification and training methods to master necessary exercise physiology, sports mechanics knowledge and guidance for athletes should be specific, the means must be innovative in order to improve the running coordination, running the technology and capability to meet the increased Pao Su purpose.

Through analysis, the main factors affecting Paosu trunk fixed balance of strength and hip, knee, ankle and upper explosive power of the swing. Training should be based on the development of frequency-based, while focusing on the reactions of athletes, ability to develop and improve special speed. Buildup of speed is the speed of the core of basketball specific, rather than absolute speed.

In terms of speed training, we should note that the pace of development

2.3.1 pure ability to be difficult, it should be combined with other instruments. For example, the development of maximum strength, speed, strength and improve movement technology (start, sliding, emergency stop, etc.), special movement speed and perfect combination of special skills.

2.3.2 Training methods can jump to promote running. "Short hop" practice (eg, 3, 5-hop and 10 hop) the principal role is to improve the start of the acceleration, while increasing step length and the start of the first 10 steps of the step size, and improve the frequency are better effect; "long jump" (eg, 30M, 50M, 100M, 200M stride jump, etc.) increase the maximum speed and speed endurance has a distinct role, of which 50M stride jump training, best; "" length of the jump combination will achieve the greatest results of training.

2.3.3 with a giant of basketball, the tall players speed training is also important. Tall players after the main reason for slow tread, the former swing, and the next Crimping to slow movements. Training should focus on improving hip, knee, ankle muscles work force. Should not only pay attention to the neglect of the other knee joints. Same time, because the heart of the burden of big tall players, it is necessary to observe the strengthening of medical supervision.

2.3.4 in terms of speed endurance training, endurance quality of basketball from the perspective of energy metabolism can be divided into aerobic endurance and anaerobic endurance; from endurance quality and the relationship between the game of basketball can be divided into general and special endurance endurance. Basketball player for the endurance qualities to be able to glycolysis as the main method, so basketball players endurance training to use the greatest ability to produce lactic acid and acid capacity of training-based. For the aerobic oxidation to form secondary. Currently used 3200M compliance training method can be better to improve the quality of endurance athletes. Should adhere to long-term training, rather than simply in order to pass compliance.

Use of various forms of endurance training methods to achieve the purpose of improving the quality of endurance. For example, the first carried out (200-100-50-50M) X6 a varied pace, rest 5 minutes after the carrying out (200-100-50-50M) X2 of the varied pace. Requirement is that each of the running to make the most strong sprint, jogging is arbitrary, but it can not go. This practice method is better than the simple effect of exercise 3200M. Mainly to improve the capacity of anaerobic metabolism.

2.4 emphasis on stretching exercises for each one stretching exercise program the quality of the initial goal is to expand the parts of the body of a range of activities. Limb can be a wide range of activities are an important component of physical fitness. A reasonable range of stretching exercises can help basketball players to improve physical strength and speed, and shorten muscle recovery time, reduce muscle tension. Carried out for the warm-up stretching exercises can help athletes psychologically and physically prepare for training and competition. Meanwhile, make the appropriate stretching exercises for athletes can reduce muscle strain, tendon strain, or due to muscle fatigue caused by other injuries. Stretching exercises can also relieve muscle pain and spasms in general.

In the practical training, some coaches simply the conduct of preheating and did not fully aware of the comprehensive and reasonable extension of the importance of exercise, at an average miserably. Therefore, the inevitable will occur during training and competition issues such as muscle strains. In the NBA to promote and encourage the practice of passive stretching exercises stretching exercises. Because in the double mutual assistance in the completion of passive stretching exercises, peer can be a separate team stretching a muscle to increase the scope of activities of muscle; through teammates to do stretching exercises, can better the feelings of their own sense of tension; could enhance Coaches and the communication between team members.

In the stretching exercises should be noted that, breathing slowly and rhythmically, stretching prior to breath, then breathe slowly stretched state. Count out loud when stretching to avoid hold your breath. If you adjust the tension a good breathing can ease muscle tension, breathing will naturally regular. At the same time, doing stretching exercises in time to adapt to physical condition. If you feel pain, stop practicing, because pain is the body issued the stop signal. Doing stretching exercises, the athletes will be pulled muscle pull feeling, but not the pain or discomfort. Has been fast-stretched muscles can cause reflex muscle contraction. Therefore, do stretching exercise movements not keen to avoid strenuous exercise produced a negative effect of exercise.

2.5 physical training of the other issues

a physical training course should also be a complete system. In addition to master scientific methods of training, coaches should pay attention to timing and the training of the recovery and adjustment.

2.5.1 of time to make arrangements for the domestic arrangements physical training mostly technical and tactical exercises, that is, the next half of the training sessions. In the case of athletes, fatigue can not be a better practice to concentrate. Physical training should be arranged for training sessions in the first half, when the athlete's concentration, the effects of training can be guaranteed. After physical training, then is the technical and tactical exercises, emphasis on strong against the conditions, the completion of technical and tactical ability, so as to better dovetail with the game.

2.5.2 adjustment of physical training is high intensity, the body of physical exercise. Stimulus-response generated by the strong, so as to ensure the timely resumption of athletes to reduce the appearance of injury, physical training, relaxation should be a fair practice and the adoption of effective means of relaxation. Commonly used methods are jogging, breathing exercises, hydrotherapy, massage, acupuncture, oxygen and psychological therapy.

At the same time, attention should be paid a reasonable diet. As the basketball games and training intensity, so dietary energy supply must be rich in nutrients should be comprehensive to ensure the athletes training and competition needs. Choose digestible carbohydrate, high-quality protein foods that are high in order to promote muscle growth and tissue repair. Eat more vegetables, fruits, to cushion the body of harmful metabolites. Also, would like to add the right amount of minerals and water. To ensure that the use of scientific and rational means to restore and better protect the training and competition is expected to reach the subject.

3. Physical evaluation system and standards tend to the rationalization of physical training aims to enable the completion of each athlete a better high-intensity training and competitions. Through science, a simple physical evaluation system for checking the effect of physical training, timely adjustment of training program will be better basketball players in the development of physical fitness. NBA to use BC fitness rating scale scientific and rational, all the individual indicators are appropriate indicators Shen Ping (This article is omitted) evaluation process is simple, convenient and available for coaches, athletes in daily training for reference.

4. Concluding Remarks by the project in recent years, China's basketball training and competition analysis, it is easy to see China's current physical training basketball content, training methods, in many respects do not meet modern basketball matches the demands of practice, we have a clear understanding of the this point. A serious and objective analysis of the current situation and existing problems, constantly sum up experience and lessons, in the light of its own reality, while drawing on domestic and international basketball and other items of scientific concepts and methods of training as soon as possible to enhance China's competitive level of basketball.


[1] Wang Bao-cheng. Ball players physical training theory and FangFrance [M]. Beijing Sport University Press. In September 2005.

[2] Sun Huan. NBA physical training [M]. People's Sports Publishing House. In January 2004.

[3] Wang Bao-cheng. Basketball in China exist in physical training several issues [J]. Journal of Beijing Sport University. 2002,25,2.

[4] Wang Bing. China's basketball players special abilities Progress of theoretical research [J]. Wuhan Institute of Physical Education. 2005,39,5.

[5] Shu-Xun Sun. Basketball players to eliminate fatigue and Sports Nutrition [J]. Sichuan Sports Science. 2004,9.



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