Sports FAQ
Home / Athletics

On the sprint and strength training methods of the literature review

Travel fatigue because of you lonely2010-01-30 03:01:15 +0000 #1
brothers and sisters, who can help me find one or write an article on the sprint and strength training methods of the literature review ah, additional on the references. Thank you, - the!
King City, Peng2010-01-30 03:07:00 +0000 #2
sprint general for the elements of strength, reaction, strength endurance and a variety of special techniques. The human body or physical activity a part of the muscles in the ability to overcome both internal and external resistance, we usually call it strength quality. Power quality has a tremendous effect on the human body movement is the basic quality of human movement, but also to measure athlete important indicator of the level of physical training. Strength refers to the quality of the time - spatial feature race on the strict compliance with the requirements of strength, based on indicators of different forces in different categories, according to Principles of strength training can be roughly divided into the following three kinds of forces: the greatest strength, fast strength and speed-strength endurance. In which the power can be divided into rapid and continuous rapid explosive power, sprint and sprint technique special forces should be combined in order to achieve good results, strength is the basis of speed, sprint sprint athlete specific strength is the cornerstone of excellence, sprint special forces should be in order to sprint guided by the principles-based strength training to sprint as the core technical features, combined with characteristics of individual differences in athletes and reasonable ways and means to select the exercises to determine the reasonable ratio between the special forces, in order to achieve the best possible practice effect.

1. Research object and methods of study

1.1 to Qingdao Economic and Technological Development Zone No. 3 Middle School track and field team 12 players for the study research methods


1.2.1 Literature France

Search Shandong Institute of Physical Education Library Thesis 5


refer to the survey method visited the Shandong Institute of Physical Education coaches 2

2. Results and Analysis

2.1 sprint sports specific strength training principles

In today's sprint trends Next, we must highlight the specific strength and specific strength training methods must be in accordance with the specific technical characteristics and the athletes ability to conduct scientific training, be extended, can be described as follows: specific strength training with the specific characteristics similar to athletics in the process of the energy supply of the same characteristics as .

Sprint technical movements of the most essential feature is the extension of hip and swing active pawing, that is, landing legs, the hip joint does not participate in the buffer, but should be continuous stretch the hip joints, increase the "Grilled soil fertility" and "pawing results. " Therefore, the sprint strength training means and methods must be stretched around the hip to strengthen technology and techniques to be pawing swing options. In the specific strength training is to move the form, movement direction, movement amplitude and the special techniques needed to "stretch the hip" "pawing" action runs counter to the improvement of lower limb extensor strength and ability to tread that stretch sprint in China's traditional strength in very high regard for The barbell exercises law must be reexamined.

2.2 sprint specific strength training methods

2.2.1 Paragraph characteristics and sprint specific strength training

Sprint technically can be divided into starting, after starting the acceleration of the way, running and finishing sprint. Paragraph different starting requirements for the major power and the outbreak is the biggest strength, starting after the buildup of explosive and continuous forces play a major role in rapid, continuous speed-strength influence on the way to run relatively large end of the run and strength endurance. The following paragraphs of exposition combine all sprint sprint of the three special forces and their training.


is the greatest force is the greatest force is the muscle in motion to play the greatest possible contraction in the power capacity. Greatest strength primarily affects acceleration, sprint start of the squat-style techniques, muscle from the static state of the process of rapid tread away from the starting blocks. Athletes need to overcome the external resistance is quite large, the power used in this process is the greatest strength.

Maximum Strength Training Features: The biggest strength of the improved fundamentally depends on the physiological cross-sectional muscle and muscle coordination of capacity development and improvement. Barbell exercises commonly used method, more concise and effective way there are many, such as weight-bearing squat, weight-bearing squat, jumping and other weight-bearing. Generally require close to maximum load, each less frequently, have ample time to recover from the interval. Addition Crouching start their own greatest strength is a good practice method.

's Greatest strength is the speed-strength and rapid strength endurance based athletes, the largest increase in strength will help them both improve, but not positively, correlated. Material was proved that support athletes in the sprint stage time is 0.09-0.11S, and the maximum force the muscles time is 0.5-0.6S. Therefore, the speed-strength and the largest difference between the forces have established contact.


based on the speed-strength standards for the different classification methods are different, depending on the size of overcoming the resistance, fast forces can be divided into explosive and continuous speed-strength.

Explosive power: players in a short time to overcome the relatively big resistance capabilities. He was starting and starting to play a major role in post-buildup. At this time athlete from the rest, accelerate to maximum speed in a short time to overcome a lot of resistance. 80% -90% weight-bearing squat, fast until the heel off the ground, making repeated training, each 6 to 8 times, doing 3 to 5 groups. Intermittent 5 minutes.

Continuous rapid force: the smaller players in the short term resistance to continuous rapid force capacity. It ran sprints on the way play a major role. Athletes at this time already has a considerable speed, the outside resistance is small. A small or moderate load, in-situ to do a high leg lift, or move forward to do to run a high leg lift to run demanding leg lift in place, as far as possible to maintain a high frequency, so 5 groups. Or do standing leg lift run, require the frequency to reach the highest, from a third party issued a password, the original mobilization as quickly as possible to accelerate forward. The main nerve sensitivity and muscle exercises instantaneous mobility.

Fast strength training features: load large or medium speed. The duration of speed-strength exercise, one should not be too long. Because these exercises on the movement speed, and demanding the central nervous system. Various forms of sprint exercises, standing long jump, triple jump, multi-level jumping, leapfrog, step dancing and so the power could be developed quickly. Proposal to adopt a flexible and changeable according to the actual situation of the training methods in order to mobilize the enthusiasm of the athletes training to prevent nerve stimulation fatigue.


fast-speed-strength endurance strength endurance is the sprint athletes in the sport a long time maintained a rapid force capacity. Rapid strength endurance and maximum strength is closely related to. Upon completion of the different players, under the same load the amount of repetitions, depending on the greatest force. Maximum power of large, then the repeated more times, otherwise less. Endurance strength good or bad, directly determines the speed of sprinters to maintain the ability to run terminal.

(Speed-strength training for endurance characteristics: if it is a lot of resistance development to overcome the power of endurance, I can use the greatest power of 50% -80% load of repetition in various forms to develop foot, foot and ankle joint strength jumping exercises. such as the load jump, uphill running, uphill jumping, legs alternating tread across steps (weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing). Technology Development and Strength Training

sprint sprint sprint as the technology is the core of special strength training and direction of special strength training should sprint to sprint to the basic orientation of technological development. contemporary sprint technical characteristics and specific strength training methods

With today's technology, the continuous development of improved sprint and innovation, and sprint the latest technology and bio-mechanical analysis showed that the "fast hip extension is far greater than the impact on the Paosu fast extensor." dash of modern technology has been accepted as a hip joint axis is based on high-speed swing - translational movement. hip accelerate the body's levels of a key link in the body where the source of fast-forward momentum. but the main effect of knee and ankle fixed role in the support phase of the power generated at the hip to convey on the ground, support legs and knee movement and subject to the hip movement, the hip extensor is the extension of the servo action. following the various links in the sprint on the role and training methods to make a brief discussion.

to the hip axis acceleration - swing practice. The movement is characterized by hip joint evaluation of the sprint The main indicators of horizontal movement of human motivation is the pendulum swinging leg with the legs folded before the rapid extension in time and space with clever. This power exists in the whole process. iliopsoas muscle and post-unit level is the main mover of human muscle. hip flexor is the major mover iliopsoas muscle, while the main mover of hip extensor muscles are mainly femoral biceps femoris muscles. training, priority should be given. Exercise are: a variety of leg weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing as quickly as possible to do an imitation of running exercises. in order to swing forward to action-based "small step to run" "fold running" "running after the kick," "Wheel running" and so on. There is also a high leg lift, Cross-low hurdles practice. all forms of jumping exercises, such as the stride jump and its various combinations is also a good means of sprint specific strength exercises. sprinter in the work of the hip, when scissors - braking. substantially straight legs fast running is to develop hip scissors - an effective means of braking power.

with knee strength-based practice Ploymetric. sprint movement, features the work of the knee joint is a passive buffer - active extension. knees is due to the caused a huge impact. the tread is stretched in a stretch with the dynamic hip movements, the knee's work is characterized by smaller and smaller tread cushion stretch, thus bringing the hip of scissors to convey the role of horizontal acceleration on the ground and, ultimately, obtained in the course in support of the human body to accelerate. support the knee is the reactive power required to power the power of living so long. Because of this, jump deep hurdle racks vertical jump exercises, knee joint nature of the work in the knee with the sprint Similar nature of work and loads more. is to develop the strength and knee sprint supporting an effective means of power.

charge of toe and ankle joints and other concession-based ultra-long exercises, sprint is a state of high velocity moments to complete before the feet touch the ground motion The. research shows that action to cushion the effect and strength of the completion of the technical charge of first, the effects depend on the toe and ankle muscle contraction ability to compromise, centrifugal - Ploymetric to the heart contractility, the main practice there are several feet touch the ground before the a variety of deep-jumping exercises, can be a single foot, both feet, to the far-hop dominated. highly reasonable, does not affect movement speed and damage of muscle in running characteristics, timing jump straight knee to toe and ankle joint force palm forward Quick jump to require a buffer knee does not participate in the development of ankle joint muscles centrifuge - to heart contractility. timed hop, and stride jump from the practice should be a gradual lengthening of the action as quickly as possible in order to maintain the speed for the purpose of her legs can be used to exchange single-step jump feet, feet, load to complete.

2.3 upper body strength training, the development of modern sprint that upper body strength in the sprint to play a significant role, it is not only a coordinating role, In the modern sprint study found that upper body strength and the size of the lower limbs of the hip, to mention legs, big legs folded, active floor, frog legs and other sectors to dip after the connection, coordination, speed, have played a role in promoting, directly or indirectly.

axis of the swing shoulder strength exercises to the shoulder axis of the upper swing strength is sprinting swing - translational movement system in the very important issues. arm speed, magnitude and direction will directly affect the swing effect of Paosu and lower extremities , because in addition to running in the upper frequency of lower limb movements leading role, but also played a role in balancing the overall movement, the strength of upper and lower limbs already a big difference, upper play its balancing role mainly rely on a powerful swing, upper and lower limbs The development of the imbalance of power can not be completed on the lower extremities a strong swing, resulting in upper and lower limbs movement disorders and the impact Paosu. weight-bearing exercises can effectively arm the development of upper body strength, pay attention to swing as far as possible the structure is consistent with the game action.

more effective training methods of the upper limb: closed arm push-ups, barbell bench press, barbell push decumbens, hand-situ swing, load swing, high leg lift swing, the former elastic resistance swing after swing resistance.

2.4 waist strength training

waist forces in the sprint to play a stabilizing role to connect and coordinate, is the strength of the transmission channel. in the sprint start, after starting to accelerate, as well as the way to run the final sprint stage, waist force's role is to effectively transfer lower limb of the tread ground forces to bring forward to do the level of physical exercise. a strong waist muscles in speed as the main way to win the sprint movement, has been increasing attention.

2.4.1 fixed start the process, lower limb fast tread on the way forward in the direction of the body an instant pop-up, waist muscle group strengths and weaknesses of strength determines the strength of lower limbs can effectively communicated to the upper body, thus effectively brought forward to do.

2.4.2 of the body was starting to accelerate after the forward posture, center of gravity in front of the body, the body weight and lower extremities quick access to the full pedal to the waist of the reaction depends mainly on the strength of support. accelerate the process of the power of waist muscle group will determine the athlete's physical stability and posture accuracy. to prevent the tread to the lower extremities due to physical force to obtain the strength of the result of inadequate loss of non-normal swing.

more effective training methods are: sit-ups, sideways sit-ups, load pulling, straight body abdomen folded (two cases) and so on.

3. Conclusion

(1) With the current technology development sprint, sprint greater emphasis on the swing hip and ankle, knee in the running of the role of the various kinds of hip scissors help improve the speed of connections should be attached to the back of the thigh muscles of the forces should be attached to the knee and ankle joints have an updated understanding of the nature of the buffer.

(2) sprint specific strength training should be with the sprint technique development trends, the project features closely, the traditional barbell exercises should be noted that with the combination of special features, jumping exercises have been proven to be a good means of special training.

(3) strength training should pay attention to all aspects of coordinated, comprehensive development.

(4) For maximum power, speed-strength, rapid strength endurance training in various projects in the sprint in the scientific and rational relationship between the proportion of is that we should be further explored.



Other posts in this category